TALA

DEFINITION:

Tala means cyclic rhythms of beats. According to some authors, it is derived from 'ta' (referring to Siva's Tandava aspect) and 'la' (referring to Pallavi Lasya)

 

TYPES OF TALA:

EK TALA

RUPAK TALA

TALA

MATHA TALA

DHRUVA TALA 

JHAMPA TALA

TRIPATA TALA

MATRA IN TALA- In Indian classical music, a matra is a beat, the smallest rhythmic sub-unit of a tala - the musical meter. It is one of the three levels of structure for tala along with Vibhag (measure) and Avartan (cycle). The significance of beats depends on their occurrence in a cycle.

A cycle of beats (tala units) of different length and speed are strung together in adance composition, and each cycle of tala is called an Avartan. Defined by how the syllables are grouped every tala is generally divided into sections (Vibhags), not all of which may have the same number of beats and can be recited or played on the pakhawaj (percussion instrument) in different speeds (Laya). Gurus recite the Bols along with the playing of the pakhawaj during the training sessions. The nomenclature for fingers used in counting tala is as follows:
1. Angusht (Thumb)
2. Tarjani (Index Finger)
3. Madhyama (Middle Finger)
4. Anamika (Ring Finger)
5. Kanishtha (Little Finger)

LAYA:

Laya refers to the speed or tempo in which the talas are recited. The tempo of the recitation of the bols (syllables) can be in Vilambit laya (Slow tempo), Madhya laya (medium tempo) or Dhruta laya (fast tempo). In a dance number, the fundamental tala continues to be the same with the change of the tempo in recitation.

EK TALA:

Jati: Chaturasya

Matra: 4    Vibhag: 2     Chanda: 2+2     Taali: on 1,5,9

Bol:

1 Guna: (Dha) (Kadhi) (Naka) (Dhini) 

2 Guna: (Dhakadhi) (Nakadhini) (Dhakadhi) (Nakadhini)

4 Guna: (Dhakadhi-Nakadhini) (Dhakadhi-Nakadhini) (Dhakadhi-Nakadhini) (Dhakadhi-Nakadhini)  

 

RUPAK TALA:

Jati: Chaturasya

Matra: 6     Vibhag: 2     Chanda: 2+4     Taali: on 1,3

Bol:

1 Guna: (Dha) (Kititaka) / (Dha) (Kititaka) (Tin) (Dha)

2 Guna: (Dhakititaka) (Dhakititaka) / (Tinda) (Dhakititaka) (Dhakititaka) (Tinda)

4 Guna: (Dhakititaka) (Dhakititaka) / (Tinda) (Dhakititaka) / (Dhakititaka) (Tinda) / (Dhakititaka) (Dhakititaka) / (Tinda) (Dhakititaka) / (Dhakititaka) (Tinda)

 

  MATHA TALA:

Jati: Chaturasra

Matra: 10     Vibhag: 3     Chanda: 4+2+4     Taali: on 1,5,7,11

Bol:

1 Guna: (Dha) (Ge) (Ta) (Thei) / (Taka) (Thei) / (Tari) (Kita) (Gadi) (Gana)

2 Guna: (Dha-Ge) (Ta-Thei) (Taka-Thei) (Tari-Kita) (Gadi-Gana) / (Dhage) (Tathei) / (Takathei) (Tarikita) (Gadi-Gana)

4 Guna: (Dhage-Tathei) (Takathei-Tarikita) (Gadigana-Dhage) (Tathei-Takathei) (Tarikita-Gadigana) (Dhage-Tathei) (Takathei-Tarikita) (Gadigana-Dhage) (Tathei-Takathei) (Tarikita-Gadigana)

 

JHAMPA TALA:

Jati: Chaturasya

Matra: 10     Vibhag: 4     Chanda: 2+3+2+3     Taali: on 1,3,8

Bol:

1 Guna: (Dhati) (Nam) / (Dhag) (Dhati) (Nam) (Tati) (Nam) / (Dhag) (Dhati) (Nam)

2 Guna: (Dhati-Nam) (Dhag-Dhati) / (Nam-Tati) (Nam-Dhag) (Dhati-Nam) (Dhati-Nam) (Dhag-Dhati) (Nam-Tati) (Nam-Dhag) (Dhati-Nam) 

4 Guna: (Dhatinam-Dhag) (Dhatinam-Tatinam) / (Dhag-Dhatinam) (Dhatinam-Dhag-Dhatinam) (Tatinam-Dhag-Dhatinam) / (Dhatinam-Dhag-Dhatinam-Tatinam) (Dhag-Dhatinam) / (Dhatinam-Dhag-Dhatinam) (Tatinam-Dhag-Dhatinam) (Dhatinam-Dhag-Dhatinam-Tatinam) 

 

DHRUVA TALA:

Jati: Chaturasya

Matra: 14     Vibhag: 4     Chanda: 4+2+4+4     Taali: on 1,5,7,11

Bol:

1 Guna: (Dha) (Ka-Dhi) (Na-Ka) (Dhini) / (Taka-Dhini) / (Dha) (Kadhi) (Naka) (Dhini) / (Dha) (Kadhi) (Naka) (Dhini)  

2 Guna: (Dhakadhi) (Nakadhini) (Takadhini) (Dhakadhi) / (Nakadhini) (Dhakadhi) / (Nakadhini) (Dhakadhi) (Nakadhini) (Takadhini) / (Dhakadhi) (Nakadhini) (Dhakadhi) (Nakadhini)

4 Guna: (Dha-Kadhi-Naka-Dhini) (Taka-Dhini-Dha-Kadha) (Naka-Dhini-Dha-Kadhi) (Naka-Dhini-Dha-Kadhi) / (Naka-Dhini-Taka-Dhini) (Dha-Kadhi-Naka-Dhini) / (Dha-Kadhi-Naka-Dhini) (Dha-Kadhi-Naka-Dhini) (Taka-Dhini-Dha-Kadhi) / (Naka-Dhini-Dha-Kadhi) (Naka-Dhini-Dha-Kadhi) (Naka-Dhini-Taka-Dhini) (Dha-Kadhi-Naka-Dhini) (Dha-Kadhi-Naka-Dhini)

 

TRIPATA TALA:

Jati: Tishra

Matra: 7     Vibhag: 3      Chanda: 3+2+2     Taali: on 1,4,6

Bol:

1Guna: (Dhei)(Tathin)(Dak)(Tathin)(Dak)(Tathin)(Dak)
2Guna: (Dhei -Tathin)(Dak-Tathin)(Dak) (Dhei -Tathin)(Dak-Tathin)(Dak) (Dhei -Tathin)(Dak-Tathin)(Dak)
4 Guna:( Dhei-Tathin-Dak-Tathin-Dak)( Dhei-Tathin-Dak-Tathin-Dak)( Dhei-Tathin-Dak-Tathin-Dak)( Dhei-Tathin-Dak-Tathin-Dak)

 
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